Chaos Theory and Starling Flocks in Nature.
Chaos theory have many applications in meteorology, sociology, physics, engineering,etc…..Also, Chaotic behavior can also be observed in many natural systems. In a scientific context, the word chaos has a slightly different meaning than it does in its general usage as a state of confusion, lacking any order. Chaos, with reference to chaos theory, refers to an apparent lack of order in a system that nevertheless obeys particular laws or rules. Chaotic behavior can be studied through analysis of a chaotic mathematical model, or through analytical techniques such as recurrence plots and Poincaré maps.
Starling flocks in Nature: When the starlings changes direction, speed, each of the other birds in the flock responds to the change and they do so nearly simultaneously regardless of the size of the flock. In essence, information moves across the flock very quickly and with nearly no degradation. The researchers describe it as a high signal-to-noise ratio. The starlings are capable of extraordinary collective responses. These masses of birds move so synchronously, swiftly, and gracefully. (Shared from the article by Andrea Alfano)
The flock’ s movement is based on evasive maneuvers. There is safety in numbers, so the individual starlings do not scatter, but rather are able to move as an intelligent cloud, fainting away from a diving raptor, thousands of birds changing direction almost simultaneously and move in union. See more at: The incredible science behind starling murmurations by Jaymi Heimbuch & A Darwinian Dance by Grainger Hunt.
Image & Source: I shared at Fig.1:Logistic map - Fig.2: Wildlife by Alan MacKenzie Photography - Fig.3: Murmurations.
Fig.4: Bifurcation diagram of the logistic map. Logistic systems bifurcate as their rates of change increase. - Fig.5: A Darwinian Dance - Fig.6: Starling, United Kingdom by John O Neill. Fig.7: Starling Murmuration by midlander1231 on Flickr.-